Password hash using PBKDF2 with HMAC SHA256/ SHA512 in .NET Framework 4.7.2 and .NET Core 2.0

Here I am back with more updates on PBKDF2 with HMAC but this time I am talking about SHA-2 family of hashes which includes SHA-256 and SHA-512, both that to in standard .NET framework.

I have posted another article for implementing PBKDF2 with SHA-2 family for password hashing which has custom implementation of PBKDF2 as at that time this option was not available in standard .NET framework. Keep on reading

AutoMapper configuration in older and newer versions

Recently when I was looking for various architecture approached and tools sets, I saw this post which is very useful. But while I was going through the post I was getting error while implementing AutoMapper. I started getting below errors when I tried to configure AutoMapper as given on the link.

  • The type or namespace name ‘Profile’ could not be found (are you missing a using directive or an assembly reference?)
  • ‘ViewModelToDomainMappingProfile.ProfileName’: no suitable method found to override
  • ‘ViewModelToDomainMappingProfile.Configure()’: no suitable method found to override
  • ‘DomainToViewModelMappingProfile.Configure()’: no suitable method found to override
  • ‘Mapper’ does not contain a definition for ‘CreateMap’
  • ‘Mapper’ does not contain a definition for ‘CreateMap’

After some time I figured out the problem. Actually while following the tutorials I installed latest version (7.0.1 at that time) of AutoMapper from nuget while this tutorial was using 3.3.1 (that article was written sometime in 2015). Keep on reading

Password hash using PBKDF2 with HMAC SHA256/ SHA512 in .NET Framework 4.7 and before

Recently I got an requirement from one of my client to generate salted password hash using PBKDF2 and SHA-2 algorithms. But as everyone knows we only have SHA-1 available in .NET framework till now.

Because this was an client requirement so I have to accommodate in my project scope and to do this I got help from a nice guy who made this easy for me. While doing search on google I found this article from that guy. Keep on reading

Browser back button triggers previous post action in .NET webform application – solved

Recently while working on one of my .NET application I was stuck in a strange problem. I created a button and its click event to insert some entry in database and at the end of this action I used below statement to redirect the page for next step.

Response.Write("<script>top.location="next step page url";</script>");

=&0=& I used this method to redirect the page because I was doing it in an iframe and wanted to redirect parent page after this step is completed and next step is started.

This was working perfectly fine but after moving to next step when I clicked browser back button same action was again fired and I got two similar entries in database. This was strange because I never exacted post event to be actually fired on browser back button because browser used to show a message when there is any post action is required (like we tap browser refresh button after any post action).

After some hit and trial I found that the statement above (Response.Write) is causing the issue. This was because the post action was still in progress because I used a trick to redirect instead of simple Response.Redirect.

To complete the post event and redirect properly to resolve the page postback issue on browser back button I used below approach in place of above like of statement:

Session["next"] = true
Response.Write("<script>top.location=top.location;</script>");

On parent page I checked if this session exists then redirect to next step

if(Session["next"] != null && Convert.ToBoolean(Session["next"]))
{
     Response.Redirect("next step page url");
}

After this approach when I clicked browser back button there was not issue of postback.

So the conclusion was that Response.Write was actual reason of the issue because it was breaking the flow without completing the post action.

Encryption and Decryption of content using RijndaelManaged Class in C#

If you want to encrypt and decrypt data in your .NET application then one of the most simplest and safest way is using RijndaelManaged class.

It is predecessor of Aes but still most of the new users us RijndaelManaged class because it is easy to plug and use.

First we have to generate an encryption key using a password ans salt. Password and salt could be any string (use base64 string to make your encryption stronger) which we have to convert to bytes array (byte[]) before using them for generating encryption key. Below is the complete example of generating key and encryption and decryption

public static byte[] GenerateEncryptionKey(string password, string saltString)
{
	byte[] salt = Convert.FromBase64String(saltString);
	var keyGen = new Rfc2898DeriveBytes(password, salt, 7845);
	return keyGen.GetBytes(32);
}
public static string Encrypt(object data, string password, string saltString)
{
	try
	{
		using (var aes = new RijndaelManaged())
		{
			//get some bytes
			aes.Key = GenerateEncryptionKey(password, saltString);
			aes.BlockSize = 256;
			aes.Padding = PaddingMode.PKCS7;

			//generate an IV
			aes.GenerateIV();

			//get the bytes for our message
			var plainBytes = Encoding.UTF8.GetBytes(data.ToString());

			//start up the encryption
			using (var ms = new MemoryStream())
			using (var cs = new CryptoStream(ms, aes.CreateEncryptor(), CryptoStreamMode.Write))
			{
				//write the bytes to the cryptostream
				cs.Write(plainBytes, 0, plainBytes.Length);
				cs.FlushFinalBlock();

				//get message bytes
				var msgBytes = ms.ToArray();

				//create a new array big enough for the both of 'em
				var cypherBytes = new byte[aes.IV.Length + msgBytes.Length];

				//return the string with the iv as the first 32 bytes. will need this when decrypting
				System.Buffer.BlockCopy(aes.IV, 0, cypherBytes, 0, aes.IV.Length);
				System.Buffer.BlockCopy(msgBytes, 0, cypherBytes, aes.IV.Length, msgBytes.Length);

				//now convert it to base64 string
				var cypherText = System.Convert.ToBase64String(cypherBytes).TrimEnd(new char[] { '=' }).Replace('+', '-').Replace('/', '_');
				//var cypherText = Convert.ToBase64String(cypherBytes);

				//return cypher text
				return cypherText;
			}
		}
	}
	catch (Exception)
	{
		return null;
	}
}

public static string Decrypt(object cypherData, string password, string saltString)
{
	try
	{
		using (var aes = new RijndaelManaged())
		{
			//get some bytes
			aes.Key = GenerateEncryptionKey(password, saltString);
			aes.BlockSize = 256;
			aes.Padding = PaddingMode.PKCS7;

			//get the bytes for our message
			string cypherStr = cypherData.ToString();
			string incoming = cypherStr.Replace('_', '/').Replace('-', '+');
			switch (cypherStr.Length % 4)
			{
				case 2: incoming += "=="; break;
				case 3: incoming += "="; break;
			}
			
			var cypherBytes = Convert.FromBase64String(incoming);
			//var cypherBytes = Convert.FromBase64String(cypherData.ToString());
			var iv = new byte[aes.IV.Length];
			var msgBytes = new byte[cypherBytes.Length - iv.Length];

			//we use the first 32 bytes of the cypherdata for the IV
			System.Buffer.BlockCopy(cypherBytes, 0, iv, 0, iv.Length);
			System.Buffer.BlockCopy(cypherBytes, iv.Length, msgBytes, 0, msgBytes.Length);

			//set the IV for the instance
			aes.IV = iv;

			//start up the decryption
			using (var ms = new MemoryStream())
			using (var cs = new CryptoStream(ms, aes.CreateDecryptor(), CryptoStreamMode.Write))
			{
				//write the bytes to the cryptostream
				cs.Write(msgBytes, 0, msgBytes.Length);
				cs.FlushFinalBlock();
					  
				//the plain text has been decrypted.
				var plainText = System.Text.Encoding.UTF8.GetString(ms.ToArray());

				//return plain text
				return plainText;
			}
		 }
	}
	catch (Exception)
	{
		return null;
	}
}

Sample Code – Android share action with chooser to display system default share chooser dialog

This post is for helping those you are looking to implement share feature in there android application and ending up with default ShareActionProvider which is too basic and doesn’t look good at all.

Solution to this problem is “chooser”. below is the sample of how you can share any data with ACTION_SEND intent by setting text and subject and at the end call start activity with createChooser.

      Intent sendIntent = new Intent();
      sendIntent.setAction(Intent.ACTION_SEND);
      String text = "";
      String url = "";
      sendIntent.putExtra(Intent.EXTRA_SUBJECT, text);
      sendIntent.putExtra(Intent.EXTRA_TEXT, text + " nn" + url);
      sendIntent.setType("text/plain");
      context.startActivity(Intent.createChooser(sendIntent, "Share"));

There are many advantages of using chooser

  • Even if you has selected any default application of this action your application will share chooser dialog so that user can select any other application without going to settings
  • You have option to set title for your share action chooser dialog
  • If no matching application found (I don’t think if this will happen to anyone in real world) then android displays a system message.

Send FCM data message & notification to Android, iOS & Web in PHP

In our previous article we learnt how to send FCM data message notification from your server to FCM server using C#. Now for those you want to use PHP instead of C# to send FCM notification we have prepared a fairly simple class.

You just need to follow below four steps and you are done.

  1. Create an object of fcm class
  2. Call setIds method (passing array of registration ids) to set registration ids of your devices
  3. Call setData method to set your notification title, message and id.
  4. Call send method
class fcm
{
	private $url = "https://fcm.googleapis.com/fcm/send";
	private $ids = array();
	private $data = array();
	
	public function setIds($ids)
	{
		$this->ids = $ids;
	}

	public function send()
	{
		if (empty($this->ids))
		{
			return "no id";
		}

		$post = array(
			'registration_ids'  => $this->ids,
			'data'              => $this->data,
		);

		$headers = array(
			'Authorization: key=' . GOOGLE_API_KEY,
			'Content-Type: application/json'
		);
      
		$ch = curl_init();

		curl_setopt( $ch, CURLOPT_URL, $this->url);
		curl_setopt( $ch, CURLOPT_POST, true);
		curl_setopt( $ch, CURLOPT_HTTPHEADER, $headers);
		curl_setopt( $ch, CURLOPT_RETURNTRANSFER, true);
		curl_setopt( $ch, CURLOPT_POSTFIELDS, json_encode($post));

		// Disabling SSL Certificate support temporarly
		curl_setopt($ch, CURLOPT_SSL_VERIFYPEER, false);

		$result = curl_exec($ch);
		
		if (curl_errno($ch)) 
		{
			$error = curl_error($ch);
			return $error;
		}

		curl_close($ch);

		$obj = json_decode($result, true);

		return "sent on: " . $obj['success'] . " devices";
	}

	public function setData($title, $msg, $id)
	{
		$this->data = array(
			"title" => $$title,
			"msg" => $msg,
			"id" => $id
		);
	}
}

Send FCM data message & notification to Android, iOS & Web in C#

In my previous article I have explained about types of notification messages in FCM. We have already learnt how to send GCM notification using C#. Now because FCM is replacing GCM so here we are with new sample of working with FCM in C#.

public class NotificationManager
{
	private class NotificationMessage
	{
		public string Title;
		public string Message;
		public long ItemId;
	}
    
	public NotificationManager()
	{
		//
		// TODO: Add constructor logic here
		//
	}

	public string SendNotification(List deviceRegIds, string message, string title, long id)
	{
		string SERVER_API_KEY = "";
		var SENDER_ID = "";
		string regIds = string.Join("","", deviceRegIds);
		
		NotificationMessage nm = new NotificationMessage();
		nm.Title = title;
		nm.Message = message;
		nm.ItemId = id;

		var value = new JavaScriptSerializer().Serialize(nm);

		WebRequest tRequest;
		tRequest = WebRequest.Create("https://fcm.googleapis.com/fcm/send");
		tRequest.Method = "post";
		tRequest.ContentType = "application/json";
		tRequest.Headers.Add(string.Format("Authorization: key={0}", SERVER_API_KEY));

		tRequest.Headers.Add(string.Format("Sender: id={0}", SENDER_ID));

		string postData = "{"collapse_key":"score_update","time_to_live":108,"delay_while_idle":true,"data": { "message" : " + value + ","time": " + """ + System.DateTime.Now.ToString() + ""},"registration_ids":["" + regIds + ""]}";

		Byte[] byteArray = Encoding.UTF8.GetBytes(postData);
		tRequest.ContentLength = byteArray.Length;

		Stream dataStream = tRequest.GetRequestStream();
		dataStream.Write(byteArray, 0, byteArray.Length);
		dataStream.Close();

		WebResponse tResponse = tRequest.GetResponse();

		dataStream = tResponse.GetResponseStream();

		StreamReader tReader = new StreamReader(dataStream);

		String sResponseFromServer = tReader.ReadToEnd();

		tReader.Close();
		dataStream.Close();
		tResponse.Close();
		return sResponseFromServer;
	}
}

You can see that only difference between GCM and FCM code is the request url where we have to post our data and yes this is the only difference between GCM and FCM except another notification message.

Above code is data notification message which is also called payload message. FCM provide simple notification message also which we don’t need to handle in our code in client app or we can say we can not handle because FCM will automatically catches it display on our app’s behalf. Upon clicking on this message it will open your app.

To send this kind of notification we simply need to replace data part of our message json (see string variable postData) with new notification json which should be like below:

{
	"to" : "yourclientregistrationid...",
	"notification" : {
		"body" : "notification body",
		"title" : "notification title",
		"icon" : "displayicon"
	}
}